psychology spelling

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psychology spelling We examined the detection of psychology spelling in children up to the primary school of consistent orthography (Italian) and non-compliant orthography (English). The effects of frequency, lexicality, duration, and normalization of the spelling performance of the two groups have been evaluated. 

English and Italian children were compared for both consecutive years and the number of years of learning. 

Two hundred and seven Italian children and 79 English children participated in the study. We found more accurate spelling in Italian than in English children: Italian children were more accurate after only 2 years of learning, while for English children the psychology spelling performance was worse after 5 years of learning. 

The diversity of languages ​​in the spelling of the spelling has been shown to be more persistent than those corresponding to the accuracy of the reading. Orthographic consistency not only produced quantity, but also quality differences, with greater effects of frequency and generality in English than in Italian children.

Introduction

Dual-path models (e.g., Ellis, 1984; Barry and Seymour, 1988; Kreiner, 1992) assume the existence of two spelling processes: the lexical process, in which orthographic presentations of words are achieved, and the process sub-lexical, based on the conversion of a series of phonemes into graphemes according to certain rules.

From a developmental perspective, it is generally assumed that beginners first rely on the non-lexical phoneme-to-grapheme process and then switch to lexical (e.g., Frith, 1985). 

Indeed, phonological recording can be helpful in obtaining an orthographic representation of words (Perfetti, 1992; Share, 1995, 1999; Ehri, 1998; Sprenger-Charolles et al., 1998; Shahar-Yames and Share, 2008), and, in the process of compiling a dictionary for -orthographic. However, if children know the words to be spelled, lexical spelling is used in young children (e.g., Cossu et al., 1995; Frith et al., 1998; Angelelli et al., 2010; Notarnicola et al., 2011). 

In addition to this initial evidence of spelling, it is generally assumed that confidence in this process increases as children become more proficient and receive a greater number of orthographic presentations (e.g., Sprenger-Charolles et al., 2003).

Orthographic consistency may contribute to relying on lexical or sub-lexical processes in acquiring literacy as an age-old activity. Linguistic diversity has been explored in more detail about learning: orthographic factor compatibility is an important factor in determining the level and manner of learning to read in all different languages ​​(for a review, see Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). 

Map of orthography-phonology that does not conform to opaque orthographies is associated with longer study time (e.g., Seymour et al., 2003) and greater reliance on lexical processes / large units of translation compared to fixed wording (e.g., Ziegler et al., 2001). The practical orthography of the language may also play a key role in acquiring the psychological spelling.

There may be different reasons to think that orthographic harmony corrects spelling detection to a greater extent than gaining learning. Compared to reading, spelling requires greater processing requirements (Bosman and Van Orden, 1997), as well as greater reliance on orthographic knowledge; i.e., it is more sensitive to the lack of orthographic information (Curtis et al., 2001). 

At this point, the diversity of languages ​​in understanding spelling can be expected to be slightly different from that defined for reading. However, spelling acquisition receives very little attention than receiving learning, and multilingual studies that explore the role of orthographic harmony in spelling are very limited.

In fact, spelling and corruption books are often “Anglo-centric” (Wimmer and Landerl, 1991; Caravolas, 2004; Share, 2008). A few studies have investigated linguistic differences in orthography structures in spelling different types of motives (Wimmer and Landerl, 1991; Caravolas and Bruck, 1993; Bruck et al., 1996 rather than English spelling (e.g., Caravolas and Bruck, 1993). 

Thus, children learning Czech (shallow orthography) were more accurate than English children in nameless spelling after 8 months of education, even if they started first grade with less exposure to kindergarten in pre-school reading skills than English children (Caravolas and Bruck, 1993). 

Then, inconsistencies in the mapping of the phoneme-grapheme make the discovery of non-lexical processes much faster than in rare orthographies (Caravolas and Bruck, 1993). Similar findings come from studies examining the ability to spell simple, duplicate, and combinations of grades 3 and 4 in Danish and Icelandic grades (Juul and Sigurdsson, 2005). 

The two languages ​​have the same orthographic structure but Danish is less compatible than Icelandic. The task involved adding a missing letter to the underscore to complete non-child pronunciations (eg, ja__e (jammer) / ‘jɑmə /). The diversity of languages ​​did not arise from the inclusion of simple consonants, in which the children of both languages ​​were generally close to the ceiling. 

However, better performance in installing dual and compound consonants has been found in Icelandic than in Danish children (especially younger children). Remarkably, Icelandic 3rd graders are more successful than Danish 4th-grade students even though the latter is 2 years older, and do the same job as Danish 6th-grade kids.

 Juul and Sigurdsson (2005) concluded that orthographic conflict may be considered a form of disability in children learning to spell, resulting in delayed detection of sub-lexical processes. 

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